The antibiotic resistance problem is triggered by the evolution and transmission of genes that confer resistance to medically essential antibiotics into human pathogens. The acquisition of such resistance genes by pathogens complicates the disease treatment, increases health care costs, and also increases the morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. As antibiotic resistance persists to evolve, antibiotics of so-called last resort developed even more precious. Reducing or avoiding the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes into human pathogens is presently of high international importance. This session is open to Antibiotic prudency, bacteriophage therapy, predatory bacteria, bacteriocins, and competitive exclusion of pathogens, Immunotherapeutics, Antibodies, Vaccines and gut microbiota modulation.